Dr Robert Cathcart MD – Vitamin C in the Treatment of AIDS


Vitamin C in the Treatment of AIDS


Medical Hypotheses, 14(4):423-433, Aug 1984.

Copyright (C), 1994 and prior years, Robert Cathcart MD

VITAMIN C IN THE TREATMENT OF ACQUIRED IMMUNE DEFICIENCY SYNDROME (AIDS)

Abstract
Introduction
Premiere Free Radical Scavenger
Ascorbate VS An Aids Suppressor Factor
Preliminary Study
Ascorbate Treatment Protocol for AIDS Patients
Intestinal Parasites
Candida Albicans
Food & Chemical Sensitivities
Other Considerations
Immunosuppressive therapy should not be utilized
Helper Suppressor Cell Ratio
Monitoring Value of Ascorbate
AIDS Possibly Involving a Permanent or Prolonged Loss of T-Helper Cells
Ascorbate and the Possible Prevention of AIDS
Controlled Studies of Other Substances [may be] Contaminated with Ascorbate
Broader Problems
Possible Elimination of the AID Syndrome
C-Paste
Kaposi’s Lesions
Conclusions
Caution
References

Abstract

My previous experience with the utilization of ascorbic acid in the treatment of viral
diseases led me to hypothesize that ascorbate would be of value in the treatment of AIDS
(acquired immune deficiency syndrome). Preliminary clinical evidence is that massive doses
of ascorbate (50-200 grams per 24 hours) can suppress the symptoms of the disease and can
markedly reduce the tendency for secondary infections. In combination with usual
treatments for the secondary infections, large doses of ascorbate will often produce a
clinical remission which shows every evidence of being prolonged if treatment is
continued. This clinical remission is achieved despite continuing laboratory evidence of
helper T-cell suppression. There may be a complete or partial destruction of the helper
T-cells during an initial infection that does not necessitate a continuing toxicity from
some source to maintain a permanent or prolonged helper T-cell suppression. However, it is
possible ascorbate may prevent that destruction if used adequately during that prodrome
period. Emphasis is put upon the recognition and treatment of the frequent intestinal
parasites. Food and chemical sensitivities occur frequently in the AID syndrome and may
aggravate symptoms considered to be part of the AID syndrome. A topical C-paste has been
found very effective in the treatment of herpes simplex and, to a lesser extent, in the
treatment of some Kaposi’s lesions. Increasingly, clinical research on other methods of
treating AIDS is being "contaminated" by patients taking ascorbate.

Introduction

I had previously described that the amount of ascorbic acid which can be tolerated
orally by a patient without producing diarrhea, increases somewhat proportionately to the
toxicity of his disease (1,2,3,4). Among the roughly 80% of persons who tolerate ascorbic
acid very well, -bowel tolerance- will be reached when in excess of 10 to 15 grams of
ascorbic acid dissolved in water is taken in 4 to 6 divided doses per 24 hours. The
astonishing finding was that when that same person is acutely ill with a mild cold, that
tolerance may increase to approximately 50 grams per 24 hours. A severe cold can increase
tolerance to 100 grams; an influenza, even up to 150 grams; and mononucleosis or viral
pneumonias, to as much as 200 grams per 24 hours. These higher doses may have to be
divided as frequently as hourly.

These large amounts of ascorbate are being drawn off the GI tract at a rate sufficient
to prevent significant amounts from reaching the rectum and producing diarrhea.
Measurements of ascorbate in urine, saliva, or serum indicate that if sufficient doses of
ascorbate are not given when a patient is ill, the body level of Vitamin C drops rapidly.
In such a case, there is not enough Vitamin C left in the body, particularly in the cells
directly involved by the disease, to guarantee all the known housekeeping functions of the
vitamin. Those functions known to be dependent on Vitamin C, including several metabolic
reactions necessary for proper functioning of the immune system, are put at risk of
malfunctioning. I call this condition -acute induced scurvy.-

Premiere Free Radical Scavenger

The reason ascorbate ameliorates so many conditions is that it functions as the
-premiere free radical scavenger- (5). This function is not because it is the most
powerful free radical scavenger, but because it is possible to saturate every cell of the
body with more molecules of ascorbate than any other free radical scavenger. The reason
that it takes such massive doses for optimal effect is because high concentrations of
ascorbate must be driven into the cells directly affected by the disease process
sufficient to neutralize all of the free radicals produced by that process, and have some
left over for Vitamin C housekeeping functions. When a disease process involves free
radicals, that disease process is capable of being ameliorated by massive doses of
ascorbate. In the case of many infectious diseases, the relief from free radical
suppression of the immune system, allows for more effective attack on the pathogen by that
immune system.

-Note: this premiere free radical scavenger function has little to do with nutrition
but is a pharmacologic effect of ascorbate when utilized in unnatural amounts for humans.-

Actually, the complete neutralization of free radicals requires several steps involving
other substances, e.g. glutathione. However clinically, the most frequent limiting factor
in the reduction of free radicals is ascorbate. In certain conditions such as chemical
allergies, certain other limiting factors may become critically important, e.g. selenium
and glutathione. Some have worried that a buildup of dehydroascorbate would be toxic in
certain of these conditions. Clinically, this consideration has not created a problem when
very large doses of ascorbate are used. Perhaps it is the high ratio of ascorbate to
dehydroascorbate, I am careful to maintain in these patients, that protects against any
temporarily accumulating dehydroascorbate. Further, I should like to point out that the
dehydroascorbate formed should not be as toxic as that free radical the ascorbate reduces
as it itself is oxidized into dehydroascorbate.

In a way, it is unfortunate that this free radical scavenger and Vitamin C are the same
substance. When ascorbate is destroyed in the process of destroying free radicals, the
vitamin C stores, particularly in the cells directly involved in the disease process, are
so depleted as to cause disorders of known housekeeping functions of Vitamin C.

It is certain that AIDS causes this depletion. The sicker the patient is, the more
ascorbate will be destroyed by the disease process. This depletion certainly contributes
to the terminal events and probably plays a key role in the increased susceptibility of
AIDS patients to various pathogens.

Ascorbate VS An Aids Suppressor Factor

A recent article describes the discovery of a -suppressor factor- in AIDS patients.
This suppressor factor was found to be neutralized in the test tube by concentrations of
ascorbate equivalent to that which would be achieved in a man who ingested 10 to 20 grams
of ascorbate a day. It was thought that this amount was -"far too toxic"- to use
in humans and that a less toxic antioxidant should be found (6).

-Actually, 10 to 20 grams/24 hours of ascorbate is easily tolerated and is not toxic-
(1,2,3,4,7,8,9,10,11,12,13,14). Unfortunately, clinically I have shown that the AIDS
disease process destroys even larger amounts of ascorbate than the 10 to 20 grams because
bowel tolerance is regularly increased to the range of from 40 to 185 grams of C per 24
hours in the patient who has moderate Kaposi’s lesions and/or moderate lymphadenopathy.
-Therefore, the 10 to 20 gram equivalent of ascorbate in the test tube will not be
adequate in vivo-.

Preliminary Study

Because of the hypothesis that AIDS patients would benefit from large doses of
ascorbate, I began the actual treatment of AIDS patients and have found that ascorbate is
indeed very valuable when used in conjunction with certain conventional treatments.

The following preliminary recommendations are based partly upon an anecdotal group of
approximately 90 AIDS patients who sought medical care from physicians but who also took
high doses of ascorbate on their own. Additionally, it is based upon 12 of my AIDS
patients, 6 of whom were given intravenous ascorbate for a short period of time. Most of
these patients have had considerable improvement in their condition. This improvement
seems somewhat proportional to the amount of ascorbate taken by the patient relative to
the severity of his disease. If the patient tolerates enough ascorbate to "neutralize
the toxicity" of his disease and if the secondary infections are treated; his
condition will go into remission. Subjectively, symptoms decrease and increase inversely
with how closely the patient titrates to bowel tolerance.

The only death has been in a patient who had previously chemotherapy, interferon, and
total body Xray therapy. Additionally, his veins were so destroyed by previous treatments
that intravenous Vitamin C therapy could not be continued under the existing
circumstances.

Such a preliminary report of recommendations is justified only because of the urgency
of the problem addressed and because in San Francisco and now New York, news of the
ascorbate treatment is spreading rapidly. Ascorbate is being used by an increasing
percentage of the AIDS patient population but without much guidance. There have been many
requests by physicians for the treatment protocol.

Ascorbate Treatment Protocol for AIDS Patients

The following protocol is recommended for AIDS and AIDS related conditions including
lymphadenopathy, idiopathic thrombo- cytopenia purpura, and Pneumocystis carinii
pneumonia.

As predicted, AIDS patients are usually capable of ingesting large doses of ascorbate.
It is desirable that the amount of ascorbate taken orally be maximized. Patients are
-titrated to bowel tolerance- (the amount that almost, but not quite, causes diarrhea). A
-balanced ascorbate- mixture is utilized which is made up of a mixture of approximately
25% buffered ascorbate salts (calcium, magnesium, and potassium ascorbate) and 75%
ascorbic acid. This mixture is dissolved in a small amount of water and taken at least
every hour. The purpose of the frequent doses and this balanced mixture is to maximize the
amount of ascorbate tolerated without producing diarrhea. Patients are permitted to vary
the percentage of ascorbate salts to straight ascorbic acid according to taste. The usual
amount tolerated initially is between 40 and 100 grams per 24 hours. -Doses in excess of
100 grams per 24 hours may be necessary with secondary bacterial and viral infections-. As
the patient’s condition improves, bowel tolerance will decrease.

When intravenous ascorbate is found necessary because the toxicity of the condition
exceeds the ability of the patient to take adequate amounts of ascorbate to scavenge all
of the free radicals created by the primary AIDS infection and the various secondary
infections, the following intravenous solutions should be utilized. Sodium ascorbate
buffered to a pH 7.4 and without preservatives is added to sterile water in a
concentration of 60 grams per 500 cc. This concentration is twice the concentration I have
recommended before because it is well tolerated in young males with large veins. Patients
with small veins may be best treated with solutions of 60 grams per liter. The time of the
infusions should be over at least a 3 hour period, preferably longer. As much as daily
administration of 3 bottles, 180 grams per 24 hours, may be necessary in acutely ill
patients, e.g. Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, disseminated herpes, disseminated
cytomegalovirus, and atypical pneumonia. Enough ascorbate should be administered to
detoxify the patient regardless of the amount needed. Additionally, oral doses of
ascorbate should be taken simultaneously with the intravenous ascorbate. -Do not let the
patients become lazy and discontinue bowel tolerance doses of ascorbate while the
intravenous ascorbate is being administered-.

Intestinal Parasites

If the AIDS patient has intestinal parasites, he must be treated for them. There is a
very high percentage of male homo- sexuals infected with intestinal parasites. These
intestinal parasites are themselves very immunosuppressive. The prognosis for an AIDS
patient is greatly enhanced by proper treatment of these parasites. -Entamoeba
histolytica-, especially, and -Giardia lamblia- must be treated. Intestinal parasites,
ordinarily considered -non-pathogens-, should be treated. If negative, repeated stool
examinations for ova and parasites should be taken if there is the slightest clinical sign
of intestinal parasite infection. Samples should be fresh, not over 2 hours old. Laxatives
may increase chances of discovering the parasites. Additional samples may have to be taken
through a sigmoidoscope if other specimens are negative for ova and parasites. With
treatment, Herxheimer’s reactions should be expected frequently. Symptoms, including
Kaposi’s lesions, may be exacerbated, despite the ascorbate, during treatment for
intestinal parasites.

Candida Albicans

Candida should be sought and treated. It should be emphasized to patients that they owe
it to themselves and society to treat the Candida consistently because of the possibility
of breeding resistant strains. The possibility of candida in the gut, esophagus, mouth,
sinuses, skin, etc. should be considered. In patients who clinically appear to have
Candida but in whom Candida cannot be cultured, sensitivities to Candida should be
suspected and treatment of especially the bowel should be considered. Herxheimer’s
reactions, when antibiotics against Candida are employed, should be considered one
indication that Candida is a problem. In these sensitive patients, foods and vitamins
containing yeasts should be avoided. Lactobacillus in large amounts should be fed to these
patients in an attempt to normalize bowel flora. Sugar and refined carbohydrates should be
avoided because Candida thrives on them.

There is a high incidence of food and chemical sensitivities associated with Candida
sensitivities (15,16,17) and Candida must be suspected whenever such sensitivities are
discovered.

Food & Chemical Sensitivities

Food and chemical sensitivities, both IgE mediated allergies and enzymatic deficiency
allergies (EDAS), are common because of the disorders of the immune system and the severe
stress imposed by the AID syndrome. This increased incidence of sensitivities may be
associated with Candida, as discussed above, but may also be a result of the AIDS
infection. Rashes, edema, phlebitis, etc. caused by corn, yeast (including yeast
containing vitamins), molds, house gas, automobile exhaust, certain herbal formulas,
cosmetics, formaldehyde, insecticides, paints, glues, and cigarette smoke have all been
observed in my small group of patients. Conditions such as Kaposi’s lesions,
lymphadenopathy and probably idiopathic thrombocytopenia purpura, conditions which would
otherwise be considered just part of the AID syndrome or AIDS related, have been seen to
be aggravated by food and chemical sensitivities. These sensitivities should be
anticipated and offending substances should be removed from the patient’s diet and
environment. Ascorbate may or may not block these sensitivities significantly; however,
ascorbate may decrease the intensity and duration of the reaction in such a way as to make
clinical discovery of the offending substance easier.

This increased incidence of food and chemical sensitivities is very important to
understand because apparent adverse reactions to Vitamin C may occur. These reactions are
almost never due to the ascorbate itself. Most ascorbate is made from corn. Minute amounts
of chemicals used in the manufacture of ascorbate may remain. Residuals of these
substances are almost invariably the cause of the sensitivity reactions. Ascorbates made
from sego palm or from tapioca and which presumably are manufactured with some different
chemicals, are often tolerated. Different brands should be tried. It is almost always
possible to find some ascorbate that is tolerated. This sensitivity problem is very
important to deal with because patients frequently feel their life depends on taking
adequate amounts of ascorbate and they may be correct in this feeling.

Many times gastrointestinal discomfort and excessive gas can be alleviated by changing
to the sego palm ascorbate or changing brands of ascorbate.

Other Considerations

Bacterial infections should be treated with appropriate antibiotics but large amounts
of lactobacillus should be administered with foods if there is the slightest tendency to
Candida infections or sensitivities. Ascorbate administration should be intensified during
treatment for bacterial infections. Intravenous ascorbate may be necessary.

Viral infections should be treated with intensification of the ascorbate treatment.
Intravenous ascorbate may become necessary.

Immunosuppressive therapy should not be utilized

Sugar and processed foods, foods with chemicals, recreational drugs, cigarettes,
alcohol, etc. should be avoided. Obvious nutritional deficits should be sought and
corrected. Additional supplimentation with especially zinc and selenium may be helpful.

All sharing of body fluids and fecal material should stop (18). Repeated exposures, not
only to possible AIDS infection, but to the secondary infections, especially intestinal
parasites and Candida should be avoided.

Helper Suppressor Cell Ratio

With this protocol, it may be anticipated that a large percentage of patients will
slowly go into an extended clinical remission. Patients must be on guard to sense any
impending infection, colds, etc. The patient should begin the additional large frequent
doses of ascorbate within minutes. At the dose levels that have been possible under
circumstances imposed, a slow improvement of the total number of T-lymphocytes may occur
but helper/suppressor cell ratios may remain suppressed. It appears that ascorbate may
assist the immune system, but that in addition, there are mechanisms whereby ascorbate
acts against pathogens, especially viruses and bacteria by mechanisms which do not depend
on the T-cells. For this reason, I would suggest using the ascorbate portion of this
protocol on children who have to be permanently isolated from the slightest exposure to
infections (bubble babies).

Monitoring Value of Ascorbate

Roughly to the degree that a patient clinically perceives himself to feel toxic (the
amount of malaise, fever, pain, how swollen the lymph nodes, how much anxiety, etc.), the
more ascorbic acid can be tolerated orally without it producing diarrhea. The amount
tolerated becomes a rough measurement of something that represents the immediate toxicity
of the condition. I use the expression "100 gram cold" to mean that at the peak
of the cold a patient tolerated 100 grams per 24 hours of ascorbic acid without diarrhea.
In cases where I am not sure what is causing an increased tolerance or if a person is
multiply ill with several secondary infections, I refer to the processes going on which
are using up the ascorbate as the "-burn-." Note that the amount of ascorbic
acid tolerated is only a good measure of this burn if it is the amount determined by
titrating to "true" bowel tolerance, i.e., diarrhea caused by ascorbic acid in a
patient who otherwise tolerates ascorbate well; not limits set by "too much
gas", "don’t like the taste", "stomach too acid", etc.

The amount of this burn has some practical and prognostic values; e.g., a patient with
a burn much over 25-30 grams almost inevitably has something the matter with him and a
thorough diagnostic workup is indicated. A lover of one of the AIDS patients had a burn of
100 grams. It was found that his helper/suppressor T-cell ratio was 0.7 but he had no
other sign of disease. Over a 6 month period, the burn has dropped to 25 grams. AIDS has
not been diagnosed in this patient but there is good reason to suspect that he has a
pre-AIDS condition. The AIDS patient himself has had his burn drop from 125 grams to 35
grams. His lymphadenopathy has improved considerably.

AIDS Possibly Involving a Permanent or Prolonged Loss of T-Helper Cells

One patient who managed to eliminate all signs of Kaposi’s lesions while taking
ascorbic acid had had his burn down to 15 grams a day for 6 months despite the
helper/supressor T-cell ratio remaining at 0.2. There had been some slight increase in the
absolute number of helper and suppressor cells. Previously detected shedding of CMV
(cytomegalovirus) had apparently stopped. This patient had 3 Kaposi’s lesions (diagnosed
as Kaposi’s sarcoma on biopsy) recur on the right foot following a cold, herpes simplex,
and influenza, all within a 2 month period. The burn markedly increased, peaking at 185
grams per 24 hours. In 2 weeks time, the patient had managed to eliminate all signs of the
lesions on the foot. The ascorbate burn slowly has lessened; now 2 months later, the burn
is at 25 grams and decreasing.

This case, plus the previous two cases, strongly suggest that the basic AIDS infection,
probably caused by a virus, is no longer active in these cases and that subsequent
ascorbate burns and various later manifestations of the AID syndrome are caused by
secondary and opportunistic infections. One is reminded of the permanent damage of certain
viral infections in association with certain predisposing factors initiating an immune
response to the beta cells of the islets of Langerhans and causing juvenile-onset diabetes
(19).

Ascorbate and the Possible Prevention of AIDS

Morishige has demonstrated the effectiveness of ascorbate in preventing hepatitis B
from blood transfusions (20). A similarity exists between AIDS and hepatitis B. It has
been my experience that patients treated with large doses of ascorbate during the acute
phase of hepatitis will not develop chronic hepatitis. My experience with herpes simplex
has been the same. Although ascorbate is helpful to a degree with chronic viral
infections, it is in the treatment of acute viral diseases that it is most effective.

It is on this basis that I recommend that all persons who fear exposure to AIDS and
certainly anyone receiving blood trans- fusions or other blood products which could in the
most remote way have been obtained from an AIDS carrier, be put on bowel tolerance doses
of ascorbate.

Controlled Studies of Other Substances [may be] Contaminated with Ascorbate

As a result of publications in periodicals concerned about the AID syndrome, (21,22) a
rapidly increasing number of AIDS patients in the San Francisco Bay Area are taking large
doses of ascorbate. The same practice is starting in New York and elsewhere. I would
suggest that physicians conducting controlled experiments on interferon, and shortly with
interleukin 2, be sensitive to the fact that their patients are, and will be con- taminating the experiments with massive doses of ascorbate. Statistical analysis of the
results of such trials will probably be valueless. Ascorbate has been contaminating cancer
treatment studies for some time as a result of orthomolecular literature (23,24,25). I
estimate that a significant increasing percentage of cancer patients in California and
other parts of the world are taking massive doses of ascorbate. Most of these patients are
hiding this fact from their oncologist.

Broader Problems

The AID syndrome has not only become a major threat to the special groups ordinarily
affected but threatens to spread at least to some extent into other groups. The
increasingly large number of persons infected by the disease increases the possibility of
mutations which could alter the routes of infection. Even without this possibility
occurring, the large population of immune suppressed persons comprises a major health
hazard because of the large pools of secondary infectious diseases generated. The large,
growing pool of intestinal parasites, heretofore present in the western world in only
small numbers, is one example of that problem.

Possible Elimination of the AID Syndrome

Practical considerations (lack of money and lack of hospital facilities) have prevented
me from administering the doses of ascorbate which I think might -possibly- eliminate the
probable viral infection initiating the AID syndrome. I suggest that the helper/suppressor
T-cell ratios should be carefully monitored while at least 180 grams/24 hours of ascorbate
is administered intravenously. At the same time bowel tolerance doses of ascorbate should
be taken orally. This program should be followed over an extended period of time (minimum
2 weeks) to find out if there is any direct effect on the process causing the AIDS.

I have preliminary evidence in one patient in which the above program was tried that
while the secondary problems were markedly suppressed by the ascorbate (7 lbs, 11 oz in 14
days) that the basic AIDS condition was not reversed. This case plus the cases implying
the permanent or prolonged suppression of the immune system make it essential to treat the
prodrome stages of AIDS with ascorbate.

If there is not a complete elimination of the basic AIDS process, bowel tolerance doses
of ascorbate and the rest of the described protocol will probably have to be maintained
for life.

My experience (1,2,3,4), and experience of other researchers (10,11,12,13,14,20,26,27)
is that acute self limiting viral diseases can be reliably cured with massive doses of
ascorbate. Viral diseases that have become chronic seem to involve pathologic processes
which are not quite as susceptible to ascorbate but which nevertheless are ameliorated,
sometimes seemingly cured. It is hoped that funds will be made available for such a
project.

C-Paste

Herpes simplex lesions can usually be made to more rapidly heal or be prevented at the
outset by increasing the doses of oral ascorbic acid and the application of C-paste.
C-paste is made with either ascorbic acid or sodium ascorbate and water applied directly
to the skin and covered with a bandage. Frequently, one application will suffice for
herpes. Care should be taken not to irritate intact skin too much in sensitive skin areas,
especially under adhesive bandages. Frequently applications to intact skin where the
patient perceives an outbreak is about to occur will completely abort the attack. Several
applications may be necessary to penetrate through the intact skin.

C-paste has also been useful on early Kaposi’s lesions. It should be applied up to 4
times a day. Alternatively, soaks of 20% sodium ascorbate or ascorbic acid (1 gram per 5
cc of water) for 15-30 minutes, 4 times a day may be helpful. Be careful not to irritate
the skin too much even with these solutions. Keep ascorbic acid out of the eyes; a 20%
-sodium ascorbate- solution can be used in the eyes with care.

Kaposi’s Lesions

Kaposi’s lesions have been described as behaving like an infectious disease closely
associated with CMV (28). With ascorbate treatment, Kaposi’s lesions may be made to go
away if the patient takes enough ascorbate and the patient is not burdened by multiple
opportunistic infections. In patients with multiple problems, there tend to be outbreaks
of the Kaposi’s lesions associated with colds, parasites, herpes, or emotional stress and
particularly associated with a letdown in the amount of C taken. Even in patients with
multiple lesions, individual lesions can frequently be seen to lose color and flatten with
the local application of ascorbate soaks.

Conclusions

Ascorbate does ameliorate the AID syndrome to a significant degree. I want to emphsize,
however, the absolute necessity of massive doses. Additionally, one must avoid and treat
oppor- tunistic infections. Multiple infections, lack of understanding in the use of C, or
inability to tolerate the doses prescribed, all result in a poor prognosis. The success of
treatments with ascorbate entirely depends on consistent administration of C sufficient to
neutralize the free radicals produced by the various diseases.

The use of ascorbate is increasing in the male homosexual population of the San
Francisco Bay Area and spreading across the United States. It will be very interesting to
see if there are any otherwise unexplained decreases in the rate of increase of new cases
of AIDS and associated deaths starting in San Francisco. The use of C is contaminating
otherwise thought to be controlled studies of other therapeutic measures. Other
considerations plus the potential application of ascorbate as part of the treatment of all
infectious diseases, makes the clarification of the usefulness of ascorbate to the medical
profession essential.

Caution

If these oral solutions are used over a long period of time, care should be taken to
keep them off the teeth by using a straw in order to avoid enamel damage. Sickle cell
anemia and G-6-PD deficiencies should be ruled out where indicated. In any condition
requiring prolonged administration of large amounts of any nutrient, I would advise
seeking the advice of a specialist to avoid induced deficiencies in other nutrients.

Robert Cathcart MD - Bibliography

References

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2. Cathcart, R.F: The method of determining proper doses of vitamin C for the treatment of disease by titrating to bowel tolerance, J. Orthomolecular Psychiatry, 10:125-132, 1981.

3. Cathcart RF: Vitamin C: Titrating to bowel tolerance, anascorbemia, and acute induced scurvy, Medical Hypotheses 7:1359-1376, 1981.

4. Cathcart RF: C-vitaminbehandling till tarmintolerans vid infektioner och allergi, Biologisk Medicin, 3:6-8, 1983.

5. Cathcart RF: Vitamin C function in AIDS, Medical Tribune, July 13, 1983.

6. Laurence J. The mystery factor that’s destroying immunity, American Health, May/June 1983.

7. Stone, I. The Healing Factor: Vitamin C Against Disease. Grosset and Dunlap, New York, 1972.

8. Pauling, L. Vitamin C and the Common Cold. W.H. Freeman and Company, San Francisco, 1970.

9. Pauling, L. Vitamin C, the Common Cold, and the Flu. W.H. Freeman and Company, San Francisco, 1976.

10. Klenner FR. Virus pneumonia and its treatment with vitamin C. J. South. Med. and Surg., 110:60-63, 1948

11. Klenner FR. The treatment of poliomyelitis and other virus diseases with vitamin C. J. South. Med. and Surg., 111:210-214, 1949.

12. Klenner, F.R. Massive doses of vitamin C and the virus diseases. J. South. Med. and Surg., 113:101-107, 1951.

13. Klenner, F.R. Observations on the dose and administration of ascorbic acid when employed beyond the range of a vitamin in human pathology. J. App. Nutr., 23:61-88, 1971.

14. Kalokerinos, A. Every Second Child. Keats Publishing, Inc., New Canaan, 1981

15. Truss, C.O. Tissue injury induced by Candida Albicans: Mental and neurologic manifestations. J. Orthomolecular Psychiatry, 7,1:17-37, 1978.

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18. Mavligit, G.M., Talpaz, M., Hsia, F.T., Wong, W., Lichtiger, B., Mansell, W.A., Mumford, D.M. Chronic Immune stimulation by sperm alloantigens. JAMA, 251:237-241, 1984.

19. Notkins, A.L. The Causes of Diabetes. Scientific American, 241,5:62-73, Nov. 1979.

20. Murata, A. Virucidal activity of vitamin C: Vitamin C for the prevention and treatment of viral diseases. Proceedings of the First Intersectional Congress of Microbiological societies, Science Council of Japan, 3:432-42, 1975.

21. Cathcart, R.F. Vitamin C function in AIDS Bay Area Reporter, p.18, Nov 17, 1983.

22. Cathcart, R.F. Vitamin C treatment protocol for AIDS, Bay
Area Reporter, p.14-15, Jan 5, 1984.

23. Cameron, E. and Pauling, L. Supplemental ascorbate in the supportive treatment of cancer: Prolongation of survival times in terminal human cancer. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 73:3685-3689, 1976.

24. Cameron, E. and Pauling, L. The orthomolecular treatment of cancer: Reevaluation of prolongation of survival times in terminal human cancer. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 75:4538-4542, 1978.

25. Cameron, E. and Pauling, L. Cancer and Vitamin C. The Linus Pauling Institute for Science and Medicine, Menlo Park, 1979.

26. Belfield, W.O., Vitamin C in treatment of canine and feline distemper complex. Veterinary Medicine/Small Animal Clinician, pp. 345-48, Apr 1967.

27. Belfield, W.O. and Zucker, M. How to Have a Healthier Dog. Doubleday & Company, Inc., New York, 1981.

28. Siegal, F.P. and Siegal, M. AIDS:The Medical Mystery. Grove Press, Inc., New York, 1983.


Content Copyright (C) 1995 and prior years, Dr Robert F. Cathcart. M.D. Reprinted with permission.

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